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Wood is such a strong material that it rarely brakes, unless it splits along its grain. This can happen over time, as joints or the wood itself gets weak. The repair is fairly easy, just follow the steps below that pertain to the type of split.
1. Small split
If the split occurred along the joint, and it is very small, just pry the split apart with a knife. Then, squeeze glue into the split and clamp it. Let the glue sit overnight.
2. Large split If the split is larger, remove the top of the table, and place it on a table saw. Take a saw, and cut the table top along the split. Shave the sides of the table so both sides are even, and could be placed back together. If you can afford to lose this small amount off the table, glue the sides together and clamp them down. For added strength, you can also add biscuits every 6 inches along the break. This will help support the table top. If you want to do this, do it before adding glue, then set the glue overnight.
If you cannot afford to lose even a centimeter off your table, take another board and cut it to fit the missing area. If possible select the same wood and stain so it won't show. Place the board between the two split sides. When you have the proper fit, glue both sides, and clamp it overnight. Unfortunately you cannot biscuit the sides when you are using a middle piece of wood.
3. Splintered split
If the split is not all the way down the table, but is splintered, chisel out a wedge of the table. Like you did with the middle piece of wood, you are going to cut a new wedge, of new wood. Again try and select a same wood with similar grain and color. Then, glue the wedge in the missing wedge. Let it sit until it is dry, then sand the wedge down so it matches the table.