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Treatment of sleep apnea may include medial measures such as weight reduction and administration of air under continuous pressure through the nasopharynx during sleep.

The hypersomnias are a more severe problem than insomnia. This disorder is characterized by cessation of breathing for at least 30 episodes (each lasting about 10 seconds) during the night. Central sleep apnea is due to failure during sleep of the respiratory drive mechanism. Obese middle-aged and older men with hypersomnias and associated congestive heart failure are most often affected. Both types may occur simultaneously. Symptoms include snoring, restless sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness, which may be associated with headaches, memory impairment, and depression.

Treatment of hypersomnias (sleep apnea) may include medical measures such as weight reduction and administration through the nasopharynx. Diaphragmatic pacing has improved daytime somnolence. Acetazolamide has shown some promise, probably by creating a metabolic acidosis and the resultant hypercapnic ventilatory response.

Narcolepsy is managed by daily administration of a stimulant such as dextroamphetamine sulfate, 10 mg in the morning, with increased dosage as necessary. Imipramine, 75-100 mg daily, has been effective in treatment of cataplexy but not narcolepsy.

Nocturnal myoclonus and REM sleep behavior disorder can be treated with clonazepam with variable results. There is no treatment for Klein-Levin syndrome.