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Here is the basics to the color wheel. Start with the primary colors.

Primary Colors: Red - Yellow - Blue

The primary colors will be combined to create secondary colors.

Red + Yellow = Orange
Yellow + Blue = Green
Blue + Red = Violet

Secondary Colors: Orange * Green * Violet

The completed color wheel would be…
Red * Orange * Yellow * Green * Blue * Violet

Mixing the primary colors with the secondary colors can expand the color wheel further.

Red-Violet * Red * Red-Orange * Orange * Yellow-Orange * Yellow * Yellow-Green * Green * Blue-Green * Blue * Blue-Violet * Violet

Black and White are separate from the color wheel.

Black: The absence of all colors.
By adding black to a color, the color will become darker not more intense.

White: The presence of all colors.
By adding white to a color, the color will become dusty or washed out but not lighter.

To make colors more intense, add more dye to the medium. Mediums are used as the base. Mediums are the latex or oil base for the paint. The dye is added to the medium. A medium can also be grout, cement, chalk, crayon, etc.

To make colors lighter, add more medium and less dye. If the medium isn't clear, the color of your medium will affect the color. If the medium is white, look for a lighter shade of the dye to get pastel colors.

Analogous Colors: Colors next to each other like red, orange & yellow or green, blue, violet. Analogous colors provide a smooth look. They are great for painting multi colored borders.

Complimentary Colors: Colors opposite on the wheel like blue & orange or yellow & violet. Complimentary colors provide a noticeable accent like school colors. Several schools have yellow and violet as their colors. These colors compliment each other for a striking look. But if complimentary colors are mixed, they will become muddy and brown will be the end result.